Tool Corner: Tips for More Efficient Creasing

by Roy Bloom, CJF APF-I

Is the shoe creased or fullered? I use the term crease if the bottom of the groove is sharp or V shaped. If the bottom is flat I consider it fullered. Call it what you want, there are two reasons to crease.

1.  To allow access to the nails for easy removal.
2.  To produce an area where dirt can collect and produce traction

A creaser replaces the forepunch that is used for plain stamped shoes. The crease follows the same positioning pattern of the forepunched nail holes (figure 1). The first nail hole is generally in the middle of the stock if you are using 3/4″ stock and gradually moves to the outside of center when it reaches the last nail hole.

There are many details to address when creasing.

The inside angle of the crease is more upright than the outside angle. The width of this crease should match the nail you are creasing for (figure 2). Because of the difference in inside and outside angles and the fact that the crease runs to the outside of center, there is a significant amount of distortion to the branch.

If the creaser is simply driven into the steel there is no way to fix the distortion (figure 3). As the creaser is driven in, the outside angle pushes the material down and away with little resistance. The inside angle is steeper, it cuts down but meets resistance from more stock and pushes material up and in. If you run the hammer down the outside edge to push the distortion in you simply close up the crease. If you run the crease again you end up with the same distortion. You must first put extra material where the crease will be. This is called hemming or knocking up the branch. The edge is hammered at the opposite angle of the outside angle of the creaser (figure 4). The outside angle of your creaser is the angle the edge should be hammered. Angle it all the way across the edge of the branch.

After hemming you will be ready to crease.

Before you start you need to look at your creaser. There should be no sharp edges on the creaser. Sharp edges cause coldshuts and cracking of the bottom of the crease. The creaser needs to flow when you are working it and sharp edges will cause the creaser to stick. Even the bottom edge of the creaser should have a slight radius (figure 5).

Once you’ve hemmed and made certain of your creaser edges you should be ready to crease. Starting from the heel or the toe, depending on the branch you start with, the creaser should be struck in the center of the head. Some have a tendency to lean the creaser away to be able to see better or to produce a straighter angle on the inside. If you do this you still need to make sure you strike the tool in the center. Striking the inside edge of the head will cause the inside edge to mushroom and even break. It can also cause the cutting edge of the tool to curl.

You can begin by making a marking run. You can then start the actual creasing. Once the creaser is struck, pick up the handle, pull and slide to the next position. Overlap your positions, pulling the creaser until the center of the tool is over the end of the previous impression. Continue until the desired length is reached. The depth of the crease will be determined by the nail you will be using.

You should now run your hammer down the back edge of the branch. Then take a good flattening run down the foot surface of the branch. You can now make another run through the crease to clean it up.


1. Prepare your creaser before you begin (no sharp edges).
2. Do your hemming of the branch.
3. Make a quick run to mark your crease.
4. Crease.
5. Lightly hammer back edge.
6. Make flattening run.
7. Do your clean up run through the crease.

This Tool Corner is from The Natural Angle Volume 2, Issue 1 – written by Roy Bloom, CJF APF-I. For more Natural Angle articles and tips, click here.

PhotoELF Edits: 2013:10:30 --- Saved as: 24-Bit JPEG (EXIF) Format 98 % --- batch crop --- crop

Roy Bloom CJF APF-I has been shoeing horses since 1973. He has been a member of the American Farrier’s Team on two different occasions and for many years served as the manager of the team.Roy has always been willing to share the extensive knowledge he’s gained over the years with members of the farrier industry. In addition to his farrier background, he developed a strong interest in blacksmithing and tool making and for many years has been manufacturing a broad range of farrier and blacksmith tools. He also has a fully equipped shop and the ability to do a wide variety of ornamental and artistic work. Roy’s work as a clinician has earned him the Educator of the Year Award from the AFA and a position in the Horseshoer’s Hall of Fame.

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Fullering Technique: Crossover or Inline?

Roy Bloom talked with us about fullering or creasing styles in forging or modifying shoes. This conversation was precipitated by some steel handled tools that were damaged and returned for inspection. It has also been a topic in Roy’s clinics for many years and it is certainly debatable as to which of the two common fullering techniques may work better for you.


We’re going to use the terms “Crossover” and “Inline” to describe the two most common styles Roy discussed. We termed Crossover to mean the fullering tool is positioned on he branch of the shoe that is furthest from the hammer hand; in effect, crossing over one branch of the shoe to fuller the other. Inline fullering would be the opposite; positioning the fullering tool on the branch nearest the hammer hand. The decision on style used will dictate what fuller you buy – regardless of the marking of left or right on the tools. Keep that in mind when you shop for a fuller – especially steel handled.


We asked a number of top competitors why they worked predominantly with one style or the other. It wasn’t too surprising to hear that it all depended on how they were taught; whether it was in shoeing school or in following mentors or clinicians like so many things we do in work and life in general.

It is also clear, with a lot of practice and development of hand-eye coordination either style can work very well.

We have attended a lot of forging competitions and know that many of the top competitors use a Crossover style rather than the Inline.They have spent thousands of hours working on their skills and hand-eye coordination to reach the top levels and if they had any difficulty in the beginning, hard work and experience obviously got them past it.

Four tools all used in Crossover style. Two tools used by right hander, two by left hander.

If you look carefully you can see all were struck off center.

Left hander used this in Crossover style. Note damage to fuller end.

Roy talked about two key disadvantages of using the Crossover style for someone just starting in forging. The steel handled tools pictured in this article were all used by novice level farriers working in the Crossover style. This style requires an extremely skilled level of hammer control to be certain you are striking the center of the tool. The tendency is to lean the tool away from you and that forces the hammer swing to come from a less balanced position, with the elbow further away from the body. Your swing has to take the hammer in an arc that is not easy to gauge when starting out. Not to say that you won’t learn to compensate as you develop your hand-eye coordination, but in the early stages, this is a complicating factor and the reason why you see the damage to these steel handle tools. They have been struck on one side of the tool, not in the center. And it is always the side of the tool nearest your body. The more serious damage is what then happens to the working end of the tool as you can see with the deformation of the end of the fullers.

ABOVE: Left and Right Hand Crossover Style. Look closely at the position of the elbows in relation to the body.

The reduced control of the hammer swing is probably the primary drawback for using the Crossover style in your early stages of forging. Second to that is the reduction of power or force that occurs when the struck tool is further away from your body and your hammer arm is also not centered with the blow. Note the position of both elbows in the various pictures of the two styles. As a rule, the Inline style keeping the elbows closer to your center will maximize the control and power behind the hammer blow. This is just food for thought. If you are experiencing any difficulties keeping your struck tools in good shape, you may want to consider these ideas.

BELOW: Left and Right Hand Inline Style. Look closely at the position of the elbows in relation to the body.

Check out Roy’s videos on YouTube for more ideas on tool use and maintenance:

This article is from The Natural Angle Volume 17, Issue 1 . For more Natural Angle articles and tips, click here.

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Shoeing for Form, Function and No Pressure

by Doug Workman, CJF

This is a show Hunter that has just finished a long show season. He has come into my life for a little light training and to let mind, body and feet have a much needed break. The life of a show horse being what it is, the farriers that work on them during the show season really have their hands full keeping these horses showing and sound. The fact that the horses have limited turnout, two to three baths a day and a variety of footing to deal with makes keeping them sound a tough job. My hat is off to these farriers.

I was very fortunate on this day to have my good friend, Patrick Bone, to help me. Patrick and I have been working together a long time and I consider it a privilege to have him work with me on any horse. Normally we would be in a hurry to get done so we could take the rest of the day to go fishing, but the boat was in the shop for repair. So we pulled out the camera, put on our aprons and dove in.

The first thing we looked at is the overall conformation of the horse and how he is shod. He is not the straightest legged horse we had ever seen, but we both have seen worse. You can also see where he has been nerved in the past. He was shod just as you would expect, a little extra foot and a hunter fit (spot on). Since we had the luxury of a break from show biz we could think in terms of more support and gathering up the feet. We just want to make sure that we put the foot in the center of the leg and the foot and leg in the center of the shoe.


The front feet were shod in aluminum as all hunters are and fit spot on. A very safe job. After removing the shoes and removing the dead sole we trim the frog removing any dirt traps and finding the true apex of the frog (where the frog meets the live sole). We now use the trimmed frog as the foundation to start our trim. My goal is to have the widest part of the foot parallel with each other approximately 1/2” to 3/8” behind the true apex of the frog after the trim. Also, I want to be as equal as possible medially and laterally across this same point (widest part of the foot). The heels should be equal length and back as close to the highest and widest part of the frog as I can get. The main thing that I keep in mind is that these are goals and I do not want to over prep the feet to achieve them.



After I have trimmed the feet as close to this protocol as I can, I will use the shoe choice and placement to compensate for any deviations that I come across. For this horse we decided to go to steel to give a more stable base of support since we are fitting with a little more length and width. To compensate for having more foot medially or laterally, I fit the shoe as if both halves are equal and box and safe the shoe on the narrow side. This is not always possible due to environment or job, but you can generally give a little help. To address anterior/posterior deviations I start at the widest part of the foot again. I want to have equal amount of foot in front of and behind this point. I’m not a big proponent of totally unloading the toe wall of the foot. I generally set my shoes back a little, but I want the toe wall bearing and supporting weight. As you can see on these feet the white line appears stretched or stressed. By using the widest part of a properly trimmed foot as a landmark, I do not have to guess where to put my toe, it gives me a destination.



Once again these are goals that I’m trying to achieve, not hard and fast rules. By having a set foundation to work from, I’m better able to see the successes or failures of my work.

This article is from The Natural Angle Volume 12, Issue 1. For more Natural Angle articles and tips, click here.

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Tool Tips: Maintaining Your Hammer and Struck Tools

By Roy Bloom, CJF APF-I

There are a lot of forging hammers in the market and just as many ideas as to how hard they should be. I have always held that the hammer hardness should not be more than the struck tool. The first reason is related to safety. A hammer that has an extremely hard heat treat level is more likely to chip or cause a problem with the struck tool or anvil if there is any kind of miss or errant blow. Secondly, because of the mass of the hammer in relation to the struck tool, damage to the tool is more likely. You will spend more money and time maintaining your struck tools if the hammer is extremely hard. In the end, this will cost you more than the occasional maintenance of your hammer if it is approximately the same hardness as the struck tools.

A hammer requires regular maintenance. If you don’t dress the face and edges regularly, you can end up with “dings” to the face that will mark the material you are working. Any deformation of the edges of the hammer can develop into a mushrooming area that is at risk of chipping or fracturing- creating a safety issue and also making it more difficult to maintain.

Pay close attention to your hammer faces and edges as well as the struck end of your top tools. If you see any indication of marking, mushrooming or other blemishes developing you can dress these using a grinder with a fine grit belt- something in the neighborhood of 100-120 grit will work well. When dressing the hammer or tools be careful not to create enough heat to bring color to the tool. This can destroy the heat treat of the tool and is very difficult to repair.

This article is from The Natural Angle Volume 14, Issue 4. For more Natural Angle articles and tips, click here.

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Dave Farley, APF-I CF Demonstrates Modifications Using the Kerckhaert SX-10

Dave Farley visited the FootPro Shop and did a variety of shoe modifications using the Kerckhaert SX-10 unclipped shoes. The SX-10 is a 3/8” thick shoe that allows you to do various modifications without sacrificing the strength of the shoe. You can find videos of these modifications on the FPD YouTube channel.

The heel clean out modification is used to promote the sole to naturally clean out or unload the material that collects or packs into the foot and sometimes snowballs. Open the heels by hammering the inside of each heel, or grinding bevels on each heel. Taper the material from the ground side of the shoe. This shoe modification helps the foot to clean, especially if the horse is working at higher speeds.

The onion modification is done by forging and displacing steel, widening the material to cover or protect an area of the sole, especially at the seat of corn at the juncture of the bar and hoof wall. There are many ways to accomplish this modification. This demonstration was done by placing the shoe on the horn and simply hammering the SX10 material inward to cover the area of the corn. This forging exercise can be forged on any area of the shoe where the foot is compromised by a puncture, bruise or being cut too short.

The double lateral heel modification is done similar to a trailer but we take almost an inch or more of material to forge a longer trailer, forging it more outward or more laterally. Then, using the horn, hammer it back into the heel area of the shoe. This provides more lateral support without as much length as a trailer. It can be forged wider by hammering from the hoof side of the shoe outward. This modification is used for horses with run under bilateral heels or contracted run under heels. For example, the type of hoof conformation that loses traction or support on tight fast turns.

The rolled toe modification is a very simple one. It requires forging the toe of the shoe approximately from the center or middle of the branch from the second nail hole outward to the second nail hole of the opposite branch. This forging of the toe area will widen the width of the branch as it thins the material the direction it’s being hammered. This thinning and widening of the toe encourages the foot to break over easier and sometimes faster. This modification is helpful to take stress off the soft tissues in that limb at the break over of the foot. If you have a horse that naturally breaks over either laterally or medially, you can adjust the roll to allow that breakover in that direction.

The lateral support modification is made by forging the steel at the heel of the shoe from the hoof side. Placing the ground side of the shoe on the edge of the anvil and holding the hammer at approximately 45 degrees, hammer the material outward. This will widen the branch or heel area. This modification is forged to help support a contracted or run under heel. It is very commonly helpful on hind feet but can also be used for fronts.

A trailer modification is made by turning the end of the branch of the shoe to line up with the diagonal toe of the shoe. It can be medial or lateral but most often is used laterally. The trailer modification should extend farther back and outward to alter the landing of the foot. This modification, if used laterally, will widen a horse’s landing. Useful for a horse that rope walks.

This article is from The Natural Angle Volume 18, Issue 2. For more Natural Angle articles and tips, click here.

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Clipping Methods by Roy Bloom, CJF APF-I

Volume 3, Issue 1 of The Natural Angle featured a story on clipping shoes using the edge of the anvil. In the step by step discussion in that article we used a clipping hammer, which is similar to a ball pein. In this article, the photos show the clipping process with the clipping, rounding and cross pein hammers as well as a handled bob punch. As you can see from the photos, the three hammers are used in an identical manner. The starting of the bubble using the bob punch is different but the drawing of the clip is the same. The point of this article is to illustrate the fact that the clips you end up with can be very similar- making it a matter of personal preference as to which tool you use to start your clips.

The hammers all require good control to produce a consistent bubble. The bob punch is somewhat easier to control but you have to be cautious not to drive the punch too deep as you may pierce the shoe. The bubble is not always as easy to draw but with practice it can provide a very consistent clip and may help avoid distortion to your crease and nail holes if your hammer control is not just right in the bubble step.

No matter how you start the bubble you need good hammer control when you are drawing the clips. Also keep in mind if you don’t use the edges of your hammer or anvil you will end up with clips that look like toe caps.

Photo 1. Use the tool that works best for you.

Photo 2. Establish a good balanced position for starting your clips using the various hammers.

Photos 3, 4. With each of the hammers, you want to drive the hammer at a 45 degree angle,
directly at the edge of the anvil.

Photos 5, 6, 7. No matter which hammer you choose,
you have to have good control to establish a good start to the clip.

Photo 8. The bob-punch requires a different starting method. Start first by setting the point of contact.

Photos 9, 10. You then slide to the edge of the hardy hole to finish producing the bubble.
Be careful not to drive the punch too deep as it can easily pierce the shoe and leave a hole.
As you can see the bubble is slightly different from the one produced by the hammers.

Photo 11. This is the bubble produced by the hammers, you should flatten the area behind the clip
with the clip toward you and using the heel area of the hammer.
This makes it much easier to see your work.

Photos 12, 13, 14. I like to draw the clips working from the same end of the anvil.
This gives me clearance for the tongs as I rotate the shoe during the drawing of the clip.
In this case I am using the flat of the hammer and the edge of the anvil to draw the clip.

Photo 15. Use the corners of the hardy hole to set your clip base.

Photos 16, 17, 18, 19. You can see that you can get similar results no matter which tool you choose.
The key to consistency is practice and hammer control. The method I use for the hammers, working from the end of the anvil, gives me a nicely balanced position where I can get good control of my hammer and the tongs.

Photo 20. The goal is consistently strong clips no matter what method you use.

This article is from The Natural Angle Volume 5, Issue 2. For more Natural Angle articles and tips, click here.

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What Happens When Hoof Care is Neglected

In July of 2020, we had a horse come in the FootPro Shop that proved to be a good example of what can happen when hoof care is not done on a regular schedule.

Dave Farley, CF APF-I came to the shop to talk about the evaluation process he follows before shoeing his horses. It was obvious the feet had not been trimmed for some time, indicating no farrier had been scheduled to keep them in reasonable shape.

JULY 2020
Annabelle before trim.

Beyond the excessive growth, Dave could see immediately she had a problem with her right front that needed to be dealt with. The owner told Dave the horse had just popped an abscess a few days before coming to the shop. In examining the size of the break in the hoof wall, it seemed likely a considerable amount of wall undermined as the abscess worked its way up the wall. There were also indications the sole had been compromised, as well.

Dave was able to get the foot trimmed, treated with FootPro CS+ and a shoe applied, despite the discomfort the abscess caused. He recommended the owners ask their vet how to treat the open wound and to make sure to follow up with a local farrier. The abscess appeared to have been ongoing for some time to cause this amount of wall separation and the poor condition of the hooves indicated she had not had any recent farrier work done either. The question was whether that neglect would change.

JULY 2020

Fast forward to March of 2021. We contacted the owners to see if they would like to bring the horse back to the FootPro Shop to be shod by Hank Chisholm, CJF. We had no idea that she had not been done since July of 2020. You can imagine our surprise- and Hank’s- when she walked into the shop. You can see from the images that the wall had grown considerably in the months since she was in the shop but she had not received any farrier care and a large area of the lateral wall of the right foot was broken off. What was still there was undermined and significantly detached. The sole was also undermined and had cracks and separation that were going to require extra care. Hank wasn’t rattled, he just knew this was going to be a tedious shoeing job that was going to take some time to get things back on track.

We had no idea that she had not been done since July of 2020.

Have a look at the images from 2020 when the abscess first caused damage to the wall and the work Hank went through to get this horse back on a good path.

This may be a good article to share with your clients that don’t stick to a good schedule. Perhaps they’ll understand why it’s important for the health of the horse to work with you to get a reasonable schedule set up.

March 2021
Missing wall and lateral Toe quarter undermined.

We had Bobby Menker, CJF APF-I come to the shop for two follow-up shoeings on this horse after Hank got her on track for recovery. The hoof is almost completely grown back and in a cycle or two, she should be as good as new.

Let’s all hope the owners learned how important it is to keep a regular schedule for her hoof care, whether it’s just to be trimmed or to be shod.

The work that Dave, Hank and Bobby did is documented in video footage that you can see on our YouTube channel.

MARCH 2021

APRIL 2021
Hoof is growing down and a much smaller area requires the Adhere patch.

JUNE 2021
Very little patch needed to fill void in toe quarter.

This article is from The Natural Angle Volume 18, Issue 4. For more Natural Angle articles and tips, click here.

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Application of Tungsten Pins

THERE ARE ANY NUMBER OF TRACTION DEVICES ON THE MARKET TODAY but a few of the most useful and least likely to create problems with the upper limb are the Tungsten pins, drive-in studs and nails with hard facing. All three are easily applied and provide significant security for horses that have to spend any time on blacktop, concrete or slippery rocks. One word of caution – always wear safety glasses when you are applying traction devices, as there is always a danger of your tool or the material chipping.

The V-Trak nails are simply applied by choosing the position where you wish to establish the traction (very often in the heel nail) and driving as you would any other nails. This is a very useful device when you have already shod a horse and find that it needs something to help give it confidence when loading or unloading in a trailer or on the show grounds where there is concrete or blacktop that has to be crossed. The nails are used extensively in the Standardbred market, particularly in the winter months.

Tungsten carbide pins are also easy to apply. They require a smaller drill bit than drive in studs (the fp brand works with a 4.5mm bit) and the 100% tungsten material provides just as much traction as the drive-in stud.

For either the pins or studs, you should first center punch the spot you plan to drill. This will help keep the bit from sliding out of position.

To avoid reaming the hole or distorting it, use a drill press or place your shoe in a vise to keep it secure. Once you have the hole drilled, place the pin in from the ground surface and tap into the depth you desire. Avoid bottoming out and making contact with the anvil face or flat surface you are using. The pins are tapered so they will tighten as you drive them in. It is also recommended to use a hammer that has a tempered face so that you don’t chip the tool. Another method of driving the pin into place is to flip it over once you have it started, and either on a metal plate or the chisel plate of your anvil, hit the foot surface of the shoe with your hammer until the pin has seated.

The drive-in studs are applied in exactly the same manner as the tungsten pins. Again, use caution when applying and don’t bottom out. The fp brand studs require a 17/64” drill bit.

Typical applications might be a pin or stud in each heel – approximately half way between the end of the shoe and the end of the crease (or last nail hole). This allows the heel landing to still have a slight bit of slide before the traction kicks in. In the toe area it is typical to see the pins or studs placed just in front of the end of the crease. You will have to make your own judgment as to whether you need something in the toe and heel area. Just keep in mind that too much traction may be counterproductive and create soreness or lameness.

This article is from The Natural Angle Volume 11, Issue 4. For more Natural Angle articles and tips, click here.

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Forging a Plain Stamped Shoe

By Roy Bloom, CJF APF-I

Roy Bloom, CJF APF-I provided us with an opportunity to get some good step by step shots of him forging a plain stamped shoe using 5/16”x3/4” flat stock. Notice that Roy, right-handed, works with his struck tools in line with his center-right side and is not trying to cross-over the shoe. This allows much more controlled use of the tools and allows you to strike the center of the tool in a balanced position. You are likely to get better results in the shoe and also avoid damaging your tool with off balance impact. You can see Roy talking about tool maintenance and forging in videos we have posted on our YouTube channel.

This article is from The Natural Angle Volume 16, Issue 3. For more Natural Angle articles and tips, click here.

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The Tool Corner: Tool Maintenance

The overwhelming majority of tools that are returned to manufacturers of top tools are not defective. Most tools show obvious signs of misuse and/or lack of maintenance. Even under correct use you have to realize top tools are not lifetime tools. If you have used your tools properly and taken the time to maintain them you will generally find you get your money’s worth.

The following photos will give you some idea how simple it can be to extend the life of your tools. When reworking tools, the most useful piece of equipment in your truck or shop is a belt sander or disc grinder. The belt sander serves a dual function, it can also be used to bevel or dress shoes. Most rework is done with no heat in the tool. If you try to forge the tools back into shape you will probably destroy any heat treatment that has been done or create problems with the weld between the mild steel handles and the tool steel head.

Photo 1.
Any struck tool will need cleanup and maintenance on a regular basis. A driving hammer with its edges and the off center blows on a clinch cutter will cause minor mushrooming and then small chips to break loose. Be sure to dome the struck end of your tools and put a good chamfer on the edge.
Photo 2.

Photos 1 and 2. Any struck tool will need cleanup and maintenance on a regular basis. A driving hammer with its edges and the off center blows on a clinch cutter will cause minor mushrooming and then small chips to break loose. Be sure to dome the struck end of your tools and put a good chamfer on the edge.

When the head of your forging tools are struck off center often enough this is the result. Both ends of the tool have been deformed. Better hammer control and early cleanup would fix the problem.
Photo 3.

When the head of your forging tools are struck off center often enough this is the result. Both ends of the tool have been deformed. Better hammer control and early cleanup would fix the problem.
Photo 4.

When the head of your forging tools are struck off center often enough this is the result. Both ends of the tool have been deformed. Better hammer control and early cleanup would fix the problem.
Photo 5.

Photos 3-5. When the head of your forging tools are struck off center often enough this is the result. Both ends of the tool have been deformed. Better hammer control and early cleanup would fix the problem.

Photo 6.
Photo 7.

Photos 6 and 7. This e-head punch has been held too long in hot material and was struck while the tip was too hot.

Photos 8 and 9. Grind back to desired nail dimension.

Photo 8.
Photo 9.

Photo 10.
Photo 11.

Photos 10 and 11. Check against nail or use a guide. This one is made from aluminum.

Photo 12.

Photo 13.

Photo 14.

Photos 12-14. Put point on all forepunch ends. Right: Maintained and ready to go back to work.

Photos 15. The tip of this drift was broken. Grind the end back flat.

Photo 16.

Photo 17.

Photo 18.

Photos 16-18. Grind back to desired dimension, note slight grind curvature behind the tip to keep drift from changing your forepunched hole. An easy fix and it’s good as new.

Photo 19.

Photo 20.

Photo 21.

Photos 19-21. Pritchel with broken tip. Grind end flat. Grind to desired dimension. Use this approach to the wheel for aggressive stock removal.

Photo 22.
Photo 23.

Photos 22 and 23. Use this approach for finish control. Back to work but be more careful and you can avoid the breakage.

This article is from The Natural Angle Volume 3, Issue 3. For more Natural Angle articles and tips, click here.

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